Paulostarted using drugs in the 1960s. Upon his return to Brazil, Coelho worked as a songwriter, composing lyrics for Elis Regina, Rita Lee, Coelho was born in Brazil and attended a Jesuit school. As a teenager, Coelho wanted to become a writer. Upon telling his mother this, she responded with “My dear, your father is an engineer. He’s a logical, reasonable man with a very clear vision of the world. Do you actually know what it means to be a writer?” After researching, which was common for him since he was a policy debater when he was in high school, Coelho concluded that a writer “always wears glasses and never combs his hair” and has a “duty and an obligation never to be understood by his own generation,” amongst other things. At 16, Coelho’s introversion and opposition to following a traditional path led to his parents committing him to a mental institution from which he escaped three times before being released at the age of 20. Coelho later remarked that “It wasn’t that they wanted to hurt me, but they didn’t know what to do… They did not do that to destroy me, they did that to save me.” At his parents’ wishes, Coelho enrolled in law school and abandoned his dream of becoming a writer. One year later, he dropped out and lived life as ahippie, traveling through South America, North Africa, Mexico, and Europe and and Brazilian icon Raul Seixas. Composing with Raul led to Paulo being associated with magic and occultism, due to the content of some songs. In 1974, Coelho was arrested for “subversive” activities by the ruling military government, who had taken power ten years earlier and viewed his lyrics as left-wing and dangerous. Coelho also worked as an actor, journalist, and theatre director before pursuing his writing career.
In 1986, Coelho walked the 500-plus mile Road of Santiago de Compostela in northwestern Spain, a turning point in his life.On the path, Coelho had a spiritual awakening, which he described autobiographically in The Pilgrimage. In an interview, Coelho stated “[In 1986], I was very happy in the things I was doing. I was doing something that gave me food and water – to use the metaphor in “The Alchemist”, I was working, I had a person whom I loved, I had money, but I was not fulfilling my dream. My dream was, and still is, to be a writer.” Coelho would leave his lucrative career as a songwriter and pursue writing full-time.
The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich is a non-fiction book by William L. Shirer chronicling the rise and fall of Nazi Germany from the 1920s to 1945. It was first published in 1960, by Simon & Schuster in the United States, where it won a National Book Award. It was a bestseller in both the U.S. and Europe, and a critical success outside Germany, where harsh criticism stimulated sales. Academic historians were generally critical.
Rise and Fall is based upon captured Third Reich documents, the available diaries of propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels, GeneralFranz Halder, and of the Italian Foreign Minister Galeazzo Ciano, evidence and testimony from the Nuremberg trials, British Foreign Office reports, and the author’s recollection of six years reporting on the Third Reich for newspapers, the United Press International(UPI), and CBS Radio —terminated by Nazi Party censorship in 1940.
The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich is a comprehensive historical interpretation of the Nazi era, positing that German history logically proceeded from Martin Luther to Adolf Hitler; that Hitler’s ascension to power was an expression of German nationalcharacter, not of totalitarianism as an ideology that was internationally fashionable in the 1930s. Author William L. Shirer summarised his perspective: “…the course of German history… made blind obedience to temporal rulers the highest virtue of Germanic man, and put a premium on servility.” This reportorial perspective, the Sonderweg interpretation of German history (special path or unique course) was then common in American scholarship. Yet, despite extensive footnotes and references, some academic critics consider its interpretation of Nazism flawed. The book also includes (identified) speculation, such as the theory thatSS Chief Heinrich Müller afterward joined the NKVD of the USSR.
Born on October 16, 1854 in Dublin, Irish writer Oscar Wilde is best known for the novel The Picture of Dorian Gray and the play The Importance of Being Earnest, as well as for his infamous arrest and imprisonment for being gay.
Oscar Fingal O’Flahertie Wills Wilde was born on October 16, 1854 in Dublin, Ireland. His father, William Wilde, was an acclaimed doctor who was knighted for his work as medical advisor for the Irish censuses. William Wilde later founded St. Mark’s Ophthalmic Hospital, entirely at his own personal expense, to treat the city’s poor. Oscar Wilde’s mother, Jane Francesca Elgee, was a poet who was closely associated with the Young Irelander Rebellion of 1848, a skilled linguist whose acclaimed English translation of Pomeranian novelist Wilhelm Meinhold’s Sidonia the Sorceresshad a deep influence on her son’s later writing.
Wilde was a bright and bookish child. He attended the Portora Royal School at Enniskillen where he fell in love with Greek and Roman studies. He won the school’s prize for the top classics student in each of his last two years, as well as second prize in drawing during his final year. Upon graduating in 1871, Wilde was awarded the Royal School Scholarship to attend Trinity College in Dublin. At the end of his first year at Trinity, in 1872, he placed first in the school’s classics examination and received the college’s Foundation Scholarship, the highest honor awarded to undergraduates.
Upon his graduation in 1874, Wilde received the Berkeley Gold Medal as Trinity’s best student in Greek, as well as the Demyship scholarship for further study at Magdalen College in Oxford. At Oxford, Wilde continued to excel academically, receiving first class marks from his examiners in both classics and classical moderations. It was also at Oxford that Wilde made his first sustained attempts at creative writing. In 1878, the year of his graduation, his poem “Ravenna” won the Newdigate Prize for the best English verse composition by an Oxford undergraduate.
Upon graduating from Oxford, Wilde moved to London to live with his friend, Frank Miles, a popular portraitist among London’s high society. There, he continued to focus on writing poetry, publishing his first collection, Poems, in 1881. While the book received only modest critical praise, it nevertheless established Wilde as an up-and-coming writer. The next year, in 1882, Wilde traveled from London to New York City to embark on an American lecture tour, for which he delivered a staggering 140 lectures in just nine months.
While not lecturing, he managed to meet with some of the leading American scholars and literary figures of the day, including Henry Longfellow, Oliver Wendell Holmes and Walt Whitman. Wilde especially admired Whitman. “There is no one in this wide great world of America whom I love and honor so much,” he later wrote to his idol.
Upon the conclusion of his American tour, Wilde returned home and immediately commenced another lecture circuit of England and Ireland that lasted until the middle of 1884. Through his lectures, as well as his early poetry, Wilde established himself as a leading proponent of the aesthetic movement, a theory of art and literature that emphasized the pursuit of beauty for its own sake, rather than to promote any political or social viewpoint.
On May 29, 1884, Wilde married a wealthy Englishwoman named Constance Lloyd. They had two sons: Cyril, born in 1885, and Vyvyan, born in 1886. A year after his wedding, Wilde was hired to run Lady’s World, a once-popular English magazine that had recently fallen out of fashion. During his two years editing Lady’s World, Wilde revitalized the magazine by expanding its coverage to “deal not merely with what women wear, but with what they think and what they feel. The Lady’s World,
” wrote Wilde, “should be made the recognized organ for the expression of women’s opinions on all subjects of literature, art and modern life, and yet it should be a magazine that men could read with pleasure.”
Beginning in 1888, while he was still serving as editor of Lady’s World, Wilde entered a seven-year period of furious creativity, during which he produced nearly all of his great literary works. In 1888, seven years after he wrote Poems, Wilde published The Happy Prince and Other Tales, a collection of children’s stories. In 1891, he published Intentions, an essay collection arguing the tenets of aestheticism, and that same year, he published his first and only novel, The Picture of Dorian Gray. The novel is a cautionary tale about a beautiful young man, Dorian Gray, who wishes (and receives his wish) that his portrait ages while he remains youthful and lives a life of sin and pleasure.
Though the novel is now revered as a great and classic work, at the time critics were outraged by the book’s apparent lack of morality. Wilde vehemently defended himself in a preface to the novel, considered one of the great testaments to aestheticism, in which he wrote, “an ethical sympathy in an artist is an unpardonable mannerism of style” and “vice and virtue are to the artist materials for an art.”
Wilde’s first play, Lady Windermere’s Fan, opened in February 1892 to widespread popularity and critical acclaim, encouraging Wilde to adopt playwriting as his primary literary form. Over the next few years, Wilde produced several great plays—witty, highly satirical comedies of manners that nevertheless contained dark and serious undertones. His most notable plays were A Woman of No Importance (1893), An Ideal Husband (1895) and The Importance of Being Earnest (1895), his most famous play.
Around the same time that he was enjoying his greatest literary success, Wilde commenced an affair with a young man named Lord Alfred Douglas. On February 18, 1895, Douglas’s father, the Marquis of Queensberry, who had gotten wind of the affair, left a calling card at Wilde’s home addressed to “Oscar Wilde: Posing Somdomite,” a misspelling of sodomite. Although Wilde’s homosexuality was something of an open secret, he was so outraged by Queensberry’s note that he sued him for libel. The decision ruined his life.
When the trial began in March, Queensberry and his lawyers presented evidence of Wilde’s homosexuality—homoerotic passages from his literary works, as well as his love letters to Douglas—that quickly resulted in the dismissal of Wilde’s libel case and his arrest on charges of “gross indecency.” Wilde was convicted on May 25, 1895 and sentenced to two years in prison.
Wilde emerged from prison in 1897, physically depleted, emotionally exhausted and flat broke. He went into exile in France, where, living in cheap hotels and friends’ apartments, he briefly reunited with Douglas. Wilde wrote very little during these last years; his only notable work was a poem he completed in 1898 about his experiences in prison, “The Ballad of Reading Gaol.”
Wilde died of meningitis on November 30, 1900 at the age of 46.
More than a century after his death, Wilde is still better remembered for his personal life—his exuberant personality, consummate wit and infamous imprisonment for homosexuality—than for his literary accomplishments. Nevertheless, his witty, imaginative and undeniably beautiful works, in particular his novel The Picture of Dorian Gray and his play The Importance of Being Earnest, are considered among the great literary masterpieces of the late Victorian period.
Throughout his entire life, Wilde remained deeply committed to the principles of aestheticism, principles that he expounded through his lectures and demonstrated through his works as well as anyone of his era. “All art is at once surface and symbol,” Wilde wrote in the preface to The Picture of Dorian Gray. “Those who go beneath the surface do so at their peril. Those who read the symbol do so at their peril. It is the spectator, and not life, that art really mirrors. Diversity of opinion about a work of art shows that the work is new, complex and vital.”
Chingiz Aitmatov (12.12.1928-10.06.2008)
The Kyrgyz writer Chingiz Aitmatov, who has died aged 79, was the most celebrated representative of Kyrgyzstan, a landlocked, mountainous nation of 5 million people in the heart of central Asia, which was a Soviet republic until 1991. A bilingual and bicultural writer, Aitmatov wrote his prose and plays in both his native Kyrgyz and in Russian, and was translated into more than 150 languages. Described as a “magical socialist-realist” in the Russian press, he was able to combine elements of Kyrgyz folk-tales and epics with formally traditional Russian realism.
Aitmatov’s life was itself full of paradoxes of epic proportions: the son of a victim of the Stalinist purges, he became the most decorated of all Soviet writers, gaining three state prizes and a Lenin prize. A beneficiary of the thaw, the cultural liberalisation which took place under Nikita Khrushchev, he became a world-famous author in the 1950s while still writing in Kyrgyz, gradually switching to Russian in the mid-1960s to became one of the most eloquent practitioners of the language. Aitmatov was deeply in love with his native land and lore, but he was also a Soviet patriot and a true internationalist.
He was born in the village of Sheker, in the Talas region of Kyrgyzstan at the foothills of the Tien Shan mountains, near the Chinese border. His father was a Kyrgyz and his mother a Tartar. In childhood, Aitmatov was familiar with ancient tribal customs and the nomadic life of his people, but it is to his mother he owed the exposure to Russian literature and culture which led to his harmonious assimilation of two cultures, the poetic synthesis of which became the secret of his art.
When Aitmatov was just nine years old, his childhood was marred by a deep tragedy that affected the rest of his life: his father Torekul, one of the first Kyrgyz communists and a regional party secretary, was arrested in 1937 and executed on a charge of “bourgeois nationalism”.
Before embarking on his writing career, Aitmatov studied animal husbandry and agriculture at the agricultural institute in the Kyrgyz capital, Frunze (now calledBishkek). In 1952 he started publishing his first Kyrgyz-language short stories in periodicals and four years later he entered the higher literary course at Moscow’s Gorky Institute. His first short story translated into Russian appeared in 1958, the year he graduated. In the same year, he published Jamila, the tale that brought him international acclaim.
A communist true-believer, he never shied away from exploring and exposing in his prose the darkest aspects of Soviet reality, just as he tackled the issue of drug abuse and drug-related crime in his bestselling novel of the perestroika period, The Scaffold (1988).
He was not a political dissenter but possessed an honest heart and melancholy philosophical mind, and tended to attribute the shortcomings of Soviet reality not to the evils of the political system, but to the inherent flaws of human nature, which the system was expected to correct. But until that happy day arrived he tended to show the world as he saw it: full of bigotry, prejudice, cruelty, sexism, patriarchal brutality, and general lack of harmony in the way people treat each other. All this is punctuated by beautiful scenes of human kindness, wisdom, love and devotion, set against the background of the stunning central Asian landscape which he poetically evoked.
These themes are also present in his other novels and plays, including The First Teacher (1962), Farewell Gulsary (1966), The White Ship (1970), The Dreams of a She-Wolf (1990) and The Mark of Cassandra (1995).
Several of his stories were turned into popular movies. Aitmatov was working on the set of a film based on his science-fiction-infused philosophical parable The Day Lasts More Than a Hundred Years when he was stricken by his illness.
In addition to his literary work Aitmatov was the Kyrgyzstan ambassador to the European Union, Nato, Unesco, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, and spent many years in Brussels.
Turkey nominated him – as a writer in a Turkic language – for the 2008 Nobel prize for literature.
He is survived by his wife, Maria; a brother, Ilgez; a sister, Roza; a daughter; and three sons, one of whom, Askar, was foreign minister of Kyrgyzstan from 2002 to 2005.
· Chingiz Aitmatov, writer, born December 12 1928; died June 10 2008
Jamila (novel)-Chingiz Aitmatov
The story takes place in a small collective village, Kurkureu,during World War II. Most male inhabitants have been enlisted to the war against Germany,and only the elders, youths, disabled, children and women have stayed behind. Without the men, they are forced to toil hard for their existence. Central to the story are two neighboring families whom destiny has drawn into close familial ties. Jamila’s husband is dead. Following an ancient tribal custom known as Hadath, which forbids leaving a widow on her own, Jamila is espoused to the neighbor’s son. This marriage unites the households of the two families into a common domestic unit. Jamila is a peppy, vivacious, beautiful young woman. Her mother in law fears lest strange men might tempt her. As the village is abundant with women and with only a few men, the latter have exploited their relative advantage to tempt the women who have not seen their husbands for nearly three years. Jamila, however, keeps her distance from the men. One day Daniyar, a reticent soldier who has been wounded in his leg,arrives at the village. The village youths, including Jamila, tend to ridicule him. One day, however, Jamila’s attitude toward Daniyar changes dramatically, due to an uncommon, heart-stirring talent that she discovers in him. Where will this attraction lead to? Will the great love that ensues materialize itself within the puritan Kirghizian community of World War II? The story is narrated as seen by a fifteen year old boy, who is also enamored with Jamila.
Rahul Sankrityayan aka Kedarnath Pandey was born on 9th April, 1893 in Azamgarh District of Uttar Pradesh, India to an orthodox Brahmin family. His father, Govardhan Pandey was a farmer by profession, while his mother, Kulawanti stayed with her parents. Sankrityayan received formal education only up to 8th grade in Urdu medium. However, this didn’t deter him from educating himself as he went on to master many languages by reading and frequently traveling across India and abroad. After the death of both his parents, mother at the age of twenty eight and father at the age of forty five, he was brought up by his grandmother. It was when Rahul was nine that he first ran away from home to explore the world. He visited many pilgrim centers of India and mainly survived on alms. In 1919, the Jallianwala Holocaust impacted him to such a level that he turned into a nationalist, participated actively in Indian freedom for independence, and even went to jail three times in his life.
A writer, a scholar, a socialist, a nationalist, a traveler, a polymath, and a polyglot – with a career as broad as that, it’s highly unlikely that India or any other country for that matter will come across such a figure in a very long time. Even though Sankrityayan’s formal education had ended by 8th grade, he climbed the mountain of paramount knowledge that many educated people across the world failed to. It was as much as theoretical education as it was practical: involving a lot a travel that took him to many parts of India including Ladakh, Kashmir, Kinnaur etc and countries like Nepal, Sri Lanka, Tibet, China, Iran, and Soviet Union. It was Sankrityayan’s urge to learn and search for prestigious artifacts including manuscripts of Pali and Sanskrit, paintings, and even books. Such was his glory that the Patna Museum in Patna, Bihar has dedicated a special section to a number of items brought back by Rahul.
Rahul Sankrityayan’s writing and scholarly career had begun when he was in his twenties. Over the years, he had written around 150 books covering a variety of subjects such as sociology, history, philosophy, Buddhism, science, drama, folklore, politics, tibetology, lexicography, biographies, autobiography, essays, and pamphlets in as many as five languages: Hindi, Sanskrit, Bhojpuri, Pali, and Tibetan. His book “Volga se Ganga” translating to “A journey from Volga to Ganga”, a 7500-years of historical accounts woven with fiction and then published, is one of his major accomplishments. The book begins in 6000 BC and ends in 1942 AD and presents a fictional account of migration of Aryans from the steppes of the Eurasia to regions around the Volga river; then their movements across the Hindukush and the Himalayas and the sub-Himalayan regions; and their spread to the Indo-Gangetic plains of the subcontinent of India. The book got translated in Tamil, Telegu, and Malayalam and remains hugely popular among youth intellectuals in Kerala till date. His book “Madhya Asia ka Itihaas” even won him the Sahitya Academy Award in 1958 and a Padmabhushan Award in 1963. If this wasn’t all, Sankrityayan was made the professor of Indology by the University of Leningrad, twice.
Since Sankrityayan got married at a very young age, he never came to know who his child-wife was. It was on his second visit to Soviet Union where he went to teach about Buddhism in the University of Leningrad, when he met Ellena Narvertovna Kozerovskaya aka Lola, a Mongolian scholar. The two got married and had a son named Igor. However, both mother and child were not allowed to travel to India when Rahul went back after completing his teaching assignment. It is said that later in his life he married a Nepali lady and had a daughter named Jaya and a son named Jeta.
During his teaching stint at the Sri Lankan University, a combination of diabetes, high blood pressure, a stroke had left Sankrtiyayan seriously ill. It was in Darjeeling that he breathed his last breath and passed away on 14th April, 1963.
Awards in His Honor
Rahul Sankrityayan National Award – Awarded to those who have contributed to Hindi travel Literature (also called Travel Litterateur’s Honour) by the Kendriya Hindi Sansthan, Government of India
Mahapandit Rahul Sankrityayan Paryatan Puraskar – Awarded for contributing significantly in the field of travelogue and Discovery and Research in Hindi, for books written originally in Hindi on Tourism related subjects by the Ministry Of Tourism, Government of India
1893: Rahul Sankrityayan was born.
1937-38: Was appointed as the Professor of Indology by the University of Leningrad.
1947-48: Was appointed as the Professor of Indology by the University of Leningrad, for the second time.
1958: Received Sahitya Academy Award for his book Madhya Asia ka Itihas.
1963: Received a Padmabhushan Award.
1963: Died at the age of 70.
A woman what will do after her husband escape from her and her family…………..?
A painter what type of life needs to painting……………?
How could a wife fallen love with an rude person…………..?
What is the difference between a dream life and acting life…………?
What is the life end of a great painter………?
Who is moon ? who is Sixpence ?
The Moon and Sixpence
The Moon and Sixpence –somerset maugham
The Hands of the Blacks
I don’t remember now how we got onto the subject, but one day Teacher said that the palms of the black’s hands were much lighter than the rest of their bodies because only few centuries ago they walked around on all fours, like wild animals, so their palms weren’t exposed to the sun, which made the rest of their bodies darker and darker. I thought of this when Father Christiano told us after catechism that we were absolutely hopeless, and that even the blacks were better than us, and he went back to this thing about their hands being lighter, and said it was like that because they always went about with their hands folded together, praying in secret. I thought this was so funny, this thing of the black’s hands being lighter, that you should just see me now – I don’t let go of anyone, whoever they are, until they tell me why they think that the palms of the black’s hands are lighter. Dona Dores, for instance, told me that God made their hands lighter like that so they wouldn’t dirty the food they made for their masters, or anything else they were ordered to do that had to be kept quite clean. Senhor Antunes, the Coca Cola man, who only comes to the village now and again when all the Cokes in the cantinas have been sold, said to me that everything I had been told was a lot of baloney. Of course I don’t know if it was really, but he assured me it was. After I said yes, all right, it was baloney, then he told me what he knew about this thing of the black’s hands. It was like this: – ‘Long ago, many years ago, God, Our Lord Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary, St. Peter, many other saints, all the angels that were in Heaven then, and some of the people who had died and gone to Heaven – they all had a meeting and decided to make blacks. Do you know how? They got hold of some clay and pressed it into some second-hand moulds. And to bake the clay of the creatures they took them to the Heavenly kilns. Because they were in a hurry and there was no room next to the fire, they hung them in the chimneys. Smoke, smoke, smoke – and there you have them, black as coals. And now do you want to know why their hand stayed white? Well, didn’t they have to hold on while their clay baked? When he had told me this Senhor Antunes and the other men who were around us were very pleased and they all burst out laughing. That very same day Senhor Frias called me after Senhor Antunes had gone away, and told me that everything I had heard from them there had been just one big pack of lies. Really and truly, what he knew about the black’s hands was right – that God finished making men and told them to bathe in a lake in Heaven. After bathing the people were nice and white. The blacks, well, they were made very early in the morning, and at this hour the water in the lake was very cold, so they only wet the palms of their hands and the soles of their feet before dressing and coming into the world.
But I read in a book that happened to mention it, that the blacks have hand lighter like this because they spent their lives bent over, gathering the white cotton of Virginia and I don’t know where else. Of course Dona Estefánia didn’t agree when I told her this. According to her it’s only because their hands became bleached with all that washing. Well, I don’t know what to think about all this, but the truth is that however calloused and cracked they may be, a black’s hands are always lighter than all the rest of him. And that’s that! My mother is the only one who must be right about this question of a black’s hands being lighter than the rest of his body. On the day that we were talking about it, us two, I was telling her what I already knew about the questions, and she just couldn’t stop laughing. What I thought was strange was that she didn’t tell me at once what she thought about all this, and she only answered me when she was sure that I wouldn’t get tired of bothering her about it. And even then she was crying and clutching herself around the stomach like someone who had laughed so much that it was quite unbearable. What she said was more or less this: ‘God made blacks because they had to be. They had to be, my son. He thought they really had to be… Afterwards he regretted having made them because the other men laughed at them and took them off to their homes and put them to serve like slaves or not much better. But because he couldn’t make them all be white, for those who were used to seeing them black would complain, He made it so that the palms of their hands would be exactly like the palms of the hands of other men. And do you know why that was? Of course you don’t know, and it’s not surprising, because many, many people don’t know. Well, listen: it was to show that what men do is only the work of men… That what men do is done by hands that are the same – hands of people who, if they had any sense, would know that before everything else they are men. He must have been thinking of this when He made the hands of the blacks be the same as the hands of those men who thank God they are not black!’
After telling me all this, my mother kissed my hands. As I ran off into the yard to play ball, I thought that I had .never seen a person cry so much when nobody had hit them