White Mughals -2002

The book is a work of social history about the warm relations that existed between the British and some Indians in the 18th and early 19th century, when one in three British men in India was married to an Indian woman. It documents the inter-ethnic liaisons between British officers, such as Major-General Charles Stuart, and Indian women, and the geopolitical context of late 18th century India. Like From the Holy Mountain, it also examines the interactions of Christianity and Islam, emphasizing the surprisingly porous relationship between the two in pre-modern times.

At the heart of White is the story of affair which saw a British dignitary, the East India Company Resident in Hyderabad, Captain James Achilles Kirkpatrick, convert to Islam and marry Khair-un-Nissa, a Hyderabadi noblewoman of royal Mughal descent. As the British Resident in Hyderabad, Kirkpatrick is shown to balance the requirements of his employers, the East India Company, with his sympathetic attitude to the Nizam of Hyderabad.

The very title of White Mughals indicates its subject: the late 18th- and early 19th-century period in India, where there had been ‘a succession of unexpected and unplanned minglings of peoples and cultures and ideas’. On one level, the book tells the tragic love story of James Kirkpatrick, ‘the thoroughly orientalised’ British Resident in Hyderabad and Khair, a beautiful young Muslim noblewoman. On another level, the story is about trade, military and political dealings, based on Dalrymple’s researches among letters, diaries, reports, and dispatches (much of it in cipher). Out of these sources he draws a fascinating picture of sexual attitudes and social etiquette, finding an “increasingly racist and dismissive attitude” among the British ruling class towards mixed race offspring, after the rise of Evangelical Christianity. He paces the gradual revelations with a novelist’s skills, leading us on, after the death of Kirkpatrick, to “the saddest and most tragic part of the whole story”. The doomed lovers actually engender an optimistic coda, when their two children move to Britain. The daughter Kitty becomes a friend and muse of Scottish writer and philosopher Thomas Carlyle, and re-establishes contact with her grandmother in India through Henry Russell.

For copy of White Mughals contact me….

Jack Ma- The Richest man in Chains

_If you put Bananas and Money in front of Monkeys, Monkeys will choose Bananas because monkeys do not know that *Money can buy a lot of Bananas*._

if you offer JOB and BUSINESS to people, they would choose JOB because most people do not know that BUSINESS can bring more MONEY than Wages.

*Robert Kiyosaki*, author of the best selling book “RICH DAD, POOR DAD” and also a business partner of Donald Trump said:
_”One of the reasons poor are poor, is because they are NOT TRAINED TO RECOGNIZE ENTREPRENEURSHIP OPPORTUNITIES._

They spend too much time in school and what they have learnt in school, is to WORK FOR WAGES instead of MONEY WORKING FOR THEM.

*”Profit is better than Wages, for Wages can make you a living but Profits can bring you a Fortune.”*

*THINK INVESTMENT* and stop fighting over increments of salaries, it still won’t be enough
*Hear this from a Professor to freshmen and women during their orientation:* (Actually he is an Acting DVC Academic at a small/new university in Kenya)

“Academic excellence is overrated!
Being top of your class does not necessarily guarantee that you will be at the top of life.
You could graduate as the best student in Finance but it doesn’t mean you will make more money than everybody else.
The best graduating Law student does not necessarily become the best lawyer.
The fact is, life requires more than the ability to understand a concept, memorise it and reproduce it in an exam.

School rewards people for their memory.

,#Life rewards people for their imagination.#

School rewards caution, life rewards daring.
School hails those who live by the rules. Life exalts those who break the rules and set new ones.
So do I mean people shouldn’t study hard in school? Oh, no, you should. But don’t sacrifice every other thing on the altar of First Class.

#Don’t limit yourself to the classroom. Do something practical. Take a leadership position.#

Start a business and fail. That’s a better Entrepreneurship 101.
Join or start a club. Contest an election and lose. It will teach you something Political Science 101 will not teach you.
Attend a seminar.
Read books outside the scope of your course.
Go on missions and win a soul for eternal rewards…
Do something you believe in!
Think less of becoming an excellent student but think more of becoming an excellent person.
Don’t make the classroom to be your world but Make the world your classroom.
Step forward, try politics, try farming, try business, try an extra thing . .”

Why people go for trekking?

So why do people go for treks? Why do they risk their lives to conquer an unseen mountain? Just for the sake of victory? To prove that they can achieve anything or is it just a healthier time pass than watching a movie on a weekend?

Those are hardly the reasons. Treks transform you. You come to know yourself but not by looking within, it is by losing yourself.

On a trek you hardly remember who you are. You hardly remember what you do in the city for a living. You for some time let go of all the people associated with you. On a deeper level your basic characteristic traits do not matter. All your regrets and your achievements go hide deep in your backpack.

The mountain does not care whether you are a CEO of a multinational or a local sherpa. After walking for sometime in nature you loose your identity and become one with d mountains. You are no longer the insecure feeble stubborn human being.

You are one with the wind. You are one with the mist. You are the birds. You are the greens. You are the freshness. You are alive. Somehow nothing else matters, your work, your relationships, nothing. All that matters is the next step. It could give you a firm footing and confidence to move ahead or it can lead you to a fifty foot fall. In that decisive moment you are alive. More alive than ever. That’s when you completely lose yourself and realize who you truly are.

Each moment reveals newer potentials. You swim across unknown waters of your soul.

Through falling you realize that you have the strength to get up.

Through bruising you realize that you have the power to be healed.

Through being alone you realize your own freedom.

In the everyday routine of life, all of us forget who we truly are. In fact being on a trek is one of the very few times when we actually remember!”

Source: <<Aranya Trekkers Group, Karnataka>>

Mallikarjuna & Rameshwara temple: Nadakalsi, Sagar Thaluk, Shimoga District, Karnataka

Nadakalsi is a remote village around 10 kms from Sagar on Soraba-Uulavi Road. The temple here is much old, built during 1218 during Hoysala King II Ballal period. This is one of those forgotten monuments which was never listed until Archeological Survey of India documented its existence.

The Mallikarjuna temple is a great example of Hoysala architecture and is said to be constructed by father and son sculptors, Jankana and Dakkana. They are constructed using the stone called `Somanatha Shile’, which was found abundantly around the village itself. Both the temples have been built on star-shaped plinth and the roofs are also of star-shape. Each temple has a sanctum and a Navaranga with vast pillared-hall. The pillars are beautiful and typically resemble other Hoysala temples












Rameshwara temple is just next to the Mallikarjuna temple and has only one entrance. The walls on either side of the main entrance have been carved with statues related to Vatsayana Kamasutra. It has a magnificent Gopuram over Garbhagudi, where we saw the beautiful Hoysala emblem and a fine statue of Bhuvaneshwari.

The temple stands out like a marvel against the backdrop of an ordinary village. The surrounding rural countryside is tranquil with lush fields, quiet lakes and no traffic. Beyond this, our interest was at best as we wandered around the temple trying to appreciate whatever we could see.
Take a look at these amazing sculpture:
Source of information: https://thegreenroute.blogspot.in by Pradeep P Damle.

National Digital Library


check this new initiative from HRD and IIT Kharagpur.6.5 million books are now available in one single portal, where you can read online, or download the books. There are text books, audio and video content. Just browsing them all may take years! Enjoy. National Digital Library is an initiative by HRD ministry. It is a huge collection of learning resources (68 lakh books) from primary to PG level. Students can use it free of charge.

To register, go to:  https://ndl.iitkgp.ac.in


where is Shri krishnadevaraya tomb ?


Historians are still in a state of conflict over the grave of Vijayanagara emperor Sri Krishnadevaraya, who reigned from 1509 to 1530 as the third ruler of the Tuluva dynasty. There are no clear inscriptions about the emperor and his chief minister Thimmarasu’s graves, and only belief by the locals.


A tomb situated on Penukonda Hill in Anantapur district, summer capital of Vijayanagar empire, is believed to be that of Thimmarasu on Penukonda hill.



Amazing sculpture of Sri Krishnadevaraya in Hampi



Artificial Ripening of Fruits – The right way

Climacteric fruits like mango, banana, papaya, sapota and custard apple are often harvested in a mature but unripe condition and then subsequently allowed to ripen by natural release of ripening hormone (ethylene) from the fruit. However, natural ripening in some fruits is a slow process, which leads to high weight loss, desiccation of fruits and uneven ripening. With the rapid development of fruit trade, artificial ripening has become essential and the methods practiced earlier by small traders are smoking and calcium carbide treatment.


Bad effects of calcium carbide

Fruits are still being commercially ripened with banned chemical like calcium carbide which after reaction with water vapour present in the surrounding atmosphere releases acetylene gas. Some traders ripen fruits like banana in enclosed chambers where large quantities of calcium carbide  is put and water sprinkled before sealing the chambers. Though the released acetylene triggers ripening process in fruits, it is an inflammable gas involving risk of fire hazards. Calcium carbide is also put in small packets in the fruit boxes and in some cases sprinkled onto the fruit surface. However, calcium carbide contains chemical impurities such as arsenic hydride and phosphorus hydride that are highly carcinogenic compounds. Improper use of calcium carbide can therefore cause chemical contamination of fresh produce. Further fruits ripened with calcium carbide though develop attractive surface colour, are inferior in taste, flavour and spoil faster.

Government of India has banned the use of calcium carbide for ripening of fruits under PFA Act 8-44 AA, 1954.

Alternatives to calcium carbide

Ethrel or ethaphon (2-chloroethane phosphonic acid) is a commercially available plant growth regulator, which is a source of ethylene similar to that naturally released by fruits during ripening process.  Although dipping of fruits in diluted ethrel solution is recommended for enhancing ripening, it is a cumbersome process and may cause some problems if commercially available ethrel contains chemical impurities. Further, Food Safety and Standard Authority of India (FSSAI) in its advise issued during May 2010 permits only the use of ethylene in gaseous form for artificial ripening of fruits. To overcome these problems ethylene gas is commercially used in modern ripening chambers which requires huge investment and is not economical for farmers or small traders. Catalytic reactors based ethylene generators are also available which produces ethylene gas using ethanol or methanol or ethrel.

An alternative simple method is standardized for enhancing the ripening process by exposing the fruits to ethylene gas released from ethrel/ethephon solution. This is a simple method wherein small quantity of alkali is added to ethrel to release the ethylene gas and the fruits are exposed to this liberated gas in air-tight portable plastic tents. In this method the fruits are placed in ventilated plastic crates inside air-tight plastic tents of known volume. Required/calculated quantity of ethrel is taken into a container and placed inside the tents to which required quantity of alkali (Sodium hydroxide) is added for releasing the ethylene gas from ethrel solution and the tents are sealed air tight immediately. A small battery operated fan can be placed inside the tent for uniform circulation of released ethylene gas. After 18-24 hours of exposure the fruits are taken out for completing the ripening process at room temperature or 18-24°C especially for Robusta banana. Using dessert coolers during ripening at room temperature would help to reduce the temperature and increase the relative humidity thereby reducing the weight loss.

Mango fruits exposed to 100 ppm ethylene gas for 24 hrs can be ripened in   5 days as compared to 10 days in non-treated fruits without adversely affecting the quality. Similarly banana bunches/hands exposed to 100 ppm ethylene gas for 18 hours  can be ripened in  4 days at RT and 6 days at 20°C. Papaya fruits exposed to ethylene gas ripened with uniform surface colour and uniform firmness in 4 days at ambient temperature. Therefore, use of ethylene is suggested as a safe alternative to calcium carbide for ripening of climacteric fruits.

Castle Rock, Karnataka-India

Castle Rock is a village in the Uttara Kannada district of the Indian state of Karnataka. The village is located in the Western Ghats on the state’s border with Goa – at an elevation of 621 m (2,040 ft).


Located in a heavily forested area, Castle Rock’s vegetation is moist tropical deciduous. Manganese mines form the main economy of the region. The village lies within the Dandeli Tiger Reserve.


img_5591 For many years, the village marked the frontier between Portuguese-held Goa and British-held India. A metre gauge railway line used to connect the Goan towns of Vasco and Margao with the rest of India and was the only rail link in the state till the Konkan Railway started services in the early 1990s. In the early 1990s, the Indian Railways converted the metre gauge line to broad gauge, thus connecting the old rail network with the rest of India. Metre gauge tracks can still be seen at the Castle Rock railway station.




Indian Railway Reservation/booking status & it’s meaning

Indian Railway Reservation/booking

The advance booking for indian train ticket opens 120 days before the date of journey. Tickets can be booked both offline at Passenger Reservation System (PRS) or online using irctc website. Ticket booked online can be an e-ticket ( which is a print-out / sms) or an i-ticket wherein the PRS ticket is couriered to the passenger.

All the tickets issued have a unique 10-digit PNR (Passenger Name Record) which you should quote for any correspondence regarding your ticket / journey. The ticket also contains all the other journey details like train number, journey date, travel class, origin, destination, ticket status, berth details for confirmed tickets, passenger details etc. Maximum of six passengers can travel through one ticket. But just having a ticket does not guarantee that your journey is confirmed. It all depends on the ticket status. All the passengers in a ticket are assigned a ticket status which can be waiting (WL), RAC (a half berth), or confirmed (full berth). These are explained below in detail:

Waiting List (WL): If the passenger status is marked as WL followed by a number then the passenger has a waitlisted status. This can get confirm only if the passengers who have booked before you for the same journey cancel their ticket. For example if the status is GNWL 4 / WL 3 , then this means that you have a waiting list of 3 (the latter number) and your ticket will get confirmed only if 3 passengers who have booked before you for the same journey happen to cancel their journey. Similarly, GNWL/AVAILABLE means that current status of your ticket is CONFIRMED because some passengers who booked before you have cancelled their tickets. This status also gives some insight into the current ticket cancellation trends for this journey. For more on this, visit Trainman’s trend analysis. In case the passenger status is waitlisted even after the chart preparation, then the passenger is not allotted any berth. If all the passengers on an e-ticket have waitlisted status after final chart preparation, then the ticket gets automatically cancelled and the amount is refunded back to the user’s account. In this case, the passengers should NOT board the train. If at least one passenger has RAC or confirm status while other passengers on same ticket have waiting list status, then the e-ticket DOES NOT get cancelled automatically and the passengers are allowed to board the train. Waiting list can be of various types:

  • GNWL: General Waiting List (GNWL) waitlisted tickets are issued when the passenger begins his/her journey at the originating station of a route or stations close to the originating station. This is most common type of waiting list and has got the highest chances of confirmation.


  • RLWL: Remote Location Waiting List (RLWL) means ticket is issued for intermediate stations (between the originating and terminating stations) because usually these are the most important towns or cities on that particular route. This type of tickets will be given a separate priority and confirmations will depend on the cancellations of a destination confirmed ticket. Remote location stations prepare there own chart 2-3 hours before the actual departure of train. For this type of ticket there are less chances of confirmation.


  • PQWL: A Pooled Quota Waiting List (PQWL) is shared by several small stations. Pooled Quotas normally operate only from the originating station of a route, and there is only one Pooled Quota for the entire run. The Pooled Quota is generally allotted for passengers travelling from the originating station to a station short of the terminating station, or from an intermediate station to the terminating station, or between two intermediate stations.


  • RLGN: Remote Location General Waiting List (RLGN) is issued when a user books a ticket where WL quota is RLWL. This means after ticket booking RLWL gets named as RLGN.


  • RSWL: Roadside Station Waiting List (RSWL) is allotted when berths or seats are booked by the originating station for journeys up to the road-side station and distance restrictions may not apply. This waiting list has also very less chances of confirmation.


  • RQWL: If a ticket is to be booked from an intermediate station to another intermediate station, and if it is not covered by the general quota or by the remote location quotas or pooled quota, the request for the ticket may go into a Request Waiting List (RQWL).


  • CKWL or Tatkal waiting list: For tatkal tickets, the waiting list issued is CKWL. If tatkal ticket goes up, it directly gets confirmed and doesn’t go through RAC status unlike GNWL. During chart preparation, general waiting list (GNWL) is preferred over tatkal waiting list (CKWL) therefore tatkal waitlisted tickets are less likely to get confirmed. Follow these tatkal booking tips to get a confirmed tatkal ticket.

If you have booked a waiting ticket or you are deciding whether to book a ticket where current status is waiting, then check your chances of confirmation i.e. ticket will get confirmed or not.
Reservation Against Cancellation (RAC): If a user has been issued an RAC ticket, then most likely his ticket will get confirmed by the time of chart preparation and he will get a berth. In case the ticket remains RAC even after chart preparation (if the coach number is preceded by R i.e. RB1, 31 means RAC seat no 31 in coach B1), then user is allotted a half berth (seat) i.e. two persons having RAC ticket status are allotted one side-lower berth. The TTE is obligated to allot berths which are cancelled after chart preparation to these RAC passengers.

Confirmed (CNF): In this case the passenger gets a full berth for the journey. In case of first AC (1A), the passenger may not get berth details even for confirmed ticket when ticket is issued. This is because the berth allotment for this class is done manually by the TTE on chart preparation.