Renowned as ‘the Land of Aryans’, Dha and Hanu village are settlements of Drokpa or Brokpa community in Ladakh. The village is located about 163 km northwest of Leh at the confluence of rivers Shyok and Indus in Kargil region in Jammu and Kashmir.

The Brogpa are a small community of Dard people residing in the valley of indus at the border with pakistan, about 163 km southwest of Leh in Ladakh. They are thought by some to be the purest descendants of the ancient Indo-Europeans.[1][2]

Dha, hanu, garkon and darchiks are the only villages where they are found. Part of the community are also located in the Deosai plateau just across the LOC in the Baltistan. Like the people of Gilgit, they speak an archaic form of the Shina language unintelligible with other dialects of Shina. They are originally said to have come from Chilas and settled in the area generations ago. They are predominantly caucasoid in contrast to the Tibeto-Burman inhabitants of most of Ladakh. They are nominally Buddhist, however animist rituals still survive.

Minaro is an alternate ethnic name. ‘Brogpa’ is the name given by the Ladakhi for the people.

Aryan Dard Lady

The traditional Brogpa diet based on locally grown foods such as barley and hardy wheat prepared most often as tsampa/sattu (roasted flour). It takes in different ways. Other important foods include potatoes, radishes, turnips, and Gur-Gur Cha, a brewed tea made of black tea, butter and salt. Dairy and poultry sources are out of menu because of religious taboos. Brogpa takes three meals a day; Chin-nana (Breakfast); Beh (Lunch) and Ganzang (Dinner). Brogpa vary with respect to the amount of meat (mainly mutton) that they eat. Household’s economic position decides the consumption of meat. It is only during festivals and rituals all have greater access to mutton.

Brogpa economy has shifted from agropastoralism to wage labor, and the division of labor that relied on stratifications of age and gender is now obsolete. Brogpa transition to private property, monogamy, nuclear families, formal education, wage labor, and their incorporation into a highly militarized economy of soldiering and portering illuminates the complex workings of modernity in Ladakh.

According to popular belief, the Brokpas were part of the army of Alexander the Great and came to the region over two thousand years ago. The Brokpas reside in five villages; however, tourists are allowed only in two villages – Dha and Hanu. Besides tourists, the villages also attract anthropologists.

The custom of marrying within the community has ensured the Brokpas have retained their distinctive features. Brokpa have fair complexion and blue coloured eyes. The custom of marrying within the community has, however, limited the population of Brokpas. The community hardly numbers over 2000.

Drokpa or Brokpa community is racially and culturally distinct from the common Ladakhis. The community has a unique sense of dressing. The community especially women makes it a practice to wear flowers on their hats. The practice has earned them the sobriquet of flower women of Ladakh. The community also practices polyandry.

Unlike rest of Ladakh which is predominantly Buddhist, Brokpas are animist and follow the Bon religion. They consider Ibex as sacred animal. The Brokpa people have preserved their traditions and rituals over the ages.

The villages of the Brokpas are also famous for their scenic splendour. Unlike the spartan landscape of Ladakh, the Brokpa villages have more green cover. Temperature in the villages is also higher than in other parts of Ladakh which has also led to the thriving vegetation. Temperature during summer reaches up to 40 degree Celsius.

Isolated from the modern world, the community mainly thrives on horticulture. Apricot and apples are the main crops. Apricots, especially from Dha, are renowned for their sweetness. The apricot stones are used for producing oil.

Dah and Hanu don’t have hotels or guest houses. But many tourism companies do offer tented accommodation.

There are no restaurants in the village. It is advisable to carry your own food. You can buy snacks and other eatables from the small shops in the village. But if you want to stay longer than one day you would need to seek the help of locals.

During summer, it is quite hot in the villages as temperature rises to 40 degree Celsius. The best time to visit is between June to October.

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Hormones: Communication between the Brain and the Body

Hormones are important messages both within the brain and between the brain and the body.

In addition to the nervous system, the endocrine system is a major communication system of the body. While the nervous system uses neurotransmitters as its chemical signals, the endocrine system uses hormones. The pancreas, kidneys, heart, adrenal glands, gonads, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, and even fat are all sources of hormones. The endocrine system works in large part by acting on neurons in the brain, which controls the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland secretes factors into the blood that act on the endocrine glands to either increase or decrease hormone production. This is referred to as a feedback loop, and it involves communication from the brain to the pituitary to an endocrine gland and back to the brain. This system is very important for the activation and control of basic behavioral activities, such as sex; emotion; responses to stress; and eating, drinking, and the regulation of body functions, including growth, reproduction, energy use, and metabolism. The way the brain responds to hormones indicates that the brain is very malleable and capable of responding to environmental signals.

The brain contains receptors for thyroid hormones (those produced by the thyroid) and the six classes of steroid hormones, which are synthesized from cholesterol — androgens, estrogens, progestins, glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and vitamin D. The receptors are found in selected populations of neurons in the brain and relevant organs in the body. Thyroid and steroid hormones bind to receptor proteins that in turn bind to DNA and regulate the action of genes. This can result in long-lasting changes in cellular structure and function.

The brain has receptors for many hormones; for example, the metabolic hormones insulin, insulin-like growth factor, ghrelin, and leptin. These hormones are taken up from the blood and act to affect neuronal activity and certain aspects of neuronal structure.

In response to stress and changes in our biological clocks, such as day and night cycles and jet lag, hormones enter the blood and travel to the brain and other organs. In the brain, hormones alter the production of gene products that participate in synaptic neurotransmission as well as affect the structure of brain cells. As a result, the circuitry of the brain and its capacity for neurotransmission are changed over a course of hours to days. In this way, the brain adjusts its performance and control of behavior in response to a changing environment.

Hormones are important agents of protection and adaptation, but stress and stress hormones, such as the glucocorticoid cortisol, can also alter brain function, including the brain’s capacity to learn. Severe and prolonged stress can impair the ability of the brain to function normally for a period of time, but the brain is also capable of remarkable recovery.

Reproduction in females is a good example of a regular, cyclic process driven by circulating hormones and involving a feedback loop: The neurons in the hypothalamus produce gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a peptide that acts on cells in the pituitary. In both males and females, this causes two hormones — the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and the luteinizing hormone (LH) — to be released into the bloodstream. In females, these hormones act on the ovary to stimulate ovulation and promote release of the ovarian hormones estradiol and progesterone. In males, these hormones are carried to receptors on cells in the testes, where they promote spermatogenesis and release the male hormone testosterone, an androgen, into the bloodstream. Testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone are often referred to as sex hormones.

In turn, the increased levels of testosterone in males and estrogen in females act on the hypothalamus and pituitary to decrease the release of FSH and LH. The increased levels of sex hormones also induce changes in cell structure and chemistry, leading to an increased capacity to engage in sexual behavior. Sex hormones also exert widespread effects on many other functions of the brain, such as attention, motor control, pain, mood, and memory.

Sexual differentiation of the brain is caused by sex hormones acting in fetal and early postnatal life, although recent evidence suggests genes on either the X or Y chromosome may also contribute to this process. Scientists have found statistically and biologically significant differences between the brains of men and women that are similar to sex differences found in experimental animals. These include differences in the size and shape of brain structures in the hypothalamus and the arrangement of neurons in the cortex and hippocampus. Sex differences go well beyond sexual behavior and reproduction and affect many brain regions and functions, ranging from mechanisms for perceiving pain and dealing with stress to strategies for solving cognitive problems. That said, however, the brains of men and women are more similar than they are different.

Anatomical differences have also been reported between the brains of heterosexual and homosexual men. Research suggests that hormones and genes act early in life to shape the brain in terms of sex-related differences in structure and function, but scientists are still putting together all the pieces of this puzzle.

Virender Sehwag



To paraphrase Mark Twain, the report of my retirement yesterday was exaggerated! However, I have always done what I felt was right and not what conformists thought to be right. God has been kind and I have done what I wanted to do – on the field and in my life. And I had decided some time back that I will retire on my 37th birthday. So today, while I spend my day with my family, I hereby announce my retirement from all forms of International Cricket and from the Indian Premier League.

Cricket has been my life and continues to be so. Playing for India was a memorable journey and I tried to make it more memorable for my team mates and the Indian cricket fans. I believe that I was reasonably successful in doing so. For that, I wish to thank all my team mates over the years – some of the greatest players of the game. I would like to thank all my captains who believed in me and backed me to the hilt. I also thank our greatest partner, the Indian cricket fan, for all the love, support and memories.

I have also played against a lot of great players and it was an absolute pleasure and honour to do so. It was possibly the greatest motivation there was to play to the best of my ability. I have lived my dream and played at the finest of cricket grounds across the globe and I want to thank the groundsmen, clubs, associations and everyone who painstakingly prepare the arena for our performances.

I miss my father today, he was there when the journey started and I wish he could have been there today as well but I know I made him proud and wherever he is today, he is watching me with pride. I want to thank my coach, Mr. A.N. Sharma sir, who was possibly the only coach who could have groomed me into the player that I became. I would probably have struggled to play for my school under any other coach. My mother, my wife Aarti and my children Aaryavir and Vedant are my biggest strength and their presence in my life keeps my mind without fear and head held high.

I would like to thank the BCCI for all its support over the years. The work that the BCCI does at such a scale is phenomenal and it has had some fine administrators over the years who have led the Board in developing the game, appreciating the contribution of players and have brought a lot of benefit to the players.

I would also like to thank the Delhi and District Cricket Association and particularly Mr. Arun Jaitley who always supported me and sought our feedback and implemented what the players wanted and his presence ensured that I always had someone to rely upon personally and for the furtherance of the game’s best interest in Delhi.

I would like to thank everyone at the Haryana Cricket Association who have welcomed me with so much love and affection and it is really exciting to work with some really talented youngsters. I would especially like to thank Anirudh Chaudhary and Ranbir Singh Mahendra, who has always had words of motivation for me during the toughest of times and I have felt safe in the knowledge that I can always turn to him for well considered advice which I value immensely.

I would also like to thank the Delhi Daredevils and the Kings XI Punjab, the franchisees that I represented, for believing in me and letting me be a part of them. I always gave my best for my team and consider myself fortunate to play with some brilliant players in the IPL.

I would also like to thank the Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC). Very little is known about the effort they put in to promote sportsmen and sportswomen across various disciplines. ONGC gave me the security to pursue my game and the organization will always have a special place in my heart.

I must also add that I have enjoyed every Press conference and every interaction with the members of the media through out my international career and the presence of Indian media on foreign tours has left some very pleasant memories that I shall always cherish.

I want to thank all my sponsors for believing in me and all the bat manufacturers that have been associated with me over the years for providing me the willow that I love.

I want to tell everyone at the Sehwag International School, Jhajjar that I now hope to have a higher frequency of visits to the campus to be with you all.

I also want to thank everyone for all the cricketing advice given to me over the years and I apologise for not accepting most of it! I had a reason for not following it; I did it my way!

Virender Sehwag

The Maha Stupa-Bhattiprolu-Guntur-Andhrapradesh-India

The Bhattiprolu maha stupa in Guntur district, one of the few found in India with the Buddhist relic caskets, will be exposed completely by March 2007 for public viewing by scientifically clearing tonnes of soil that has accumulated over a century. The Archaeological Survey of India will begin on Friday scientific clearing of the soil from the remnants of stupa proper and circumbulator, ASI Director and Hyderabad Circle Superintendenting Archaeologist D. Jithendra Das said. Boswell of East India Company in 1870 first excavated the stupa, dating back to 3rd Century BC and surrounding structures to 4th Century BC, where he found one of the ancient towns and stupa. Later in 1892 Alexander Rea fully excavated the stupa and took two caskets with Buddhist Relics along with some sculptured pieces of the stupa dome to the Egmore Museum in Chennai.

The stupa was vandalised during the 18th Century and during the first excavation a proof of existence of the Republican Kingdom of Kubera Raja was found from the inscription. The stupa was constructed in wheel shape like the one found at Ghantasala in Krishna district.

A tiny village located in the Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh, India, Bhattiprolu was known as Pratipalapura in the erstwhile era. At that point of time it was a very well known Buddhist town under the Sala kingdom.

Bhattiprolu is most known for its stupa, the Chinna Lanja dibba and Vikramarka kota dibba. Excavation undertaken in the year 1870 unearthed three mounds while the one carried out in 1892 led to the discovery of three inscribed stone relic caskets containing crystal caskets, relics of Buddha and jewels. The diameter of the stupa measures around 40 m with an additional basement of 2.4 m wide running all around. The most important discovery is the crystal relic casket of sarira dhatu of the Buddha from the central mass of the stupas.

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The Old Man and the Sea-Ernest Hemingway

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About Author:

Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961) was born in Oak Park, IL. As a boy, he began his love for hunting and fishing. One of his first jobs was as an ambulance driver in Italy during WWI. After the war, he continued to live in Europe and experienced the life of an expatriate. One of his most famous novels, The Sun Also Rises, is about the “Lost Generation’s” experiences following the war. Hemingway hunted bear in Wyoming and lions in Africa. He also lived in Key West, FL and loved deep sea fishing. His experiences there helped him write The Old Man and The Sea. This novel was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1953. His life included much strife. He was wounded by shrapnel in WWI, some of which was never able to be removed. He was married four times. One of the main themes in his books is what it means to be a man. He is known for his Code Hero, a man who is stoic and stays strong against sometimes unbeatable odds.

The count of monte cristo


The Count of Monte Cristo (French: Le Comte de Monte-Cristo) is an adventure novel by French author Alexandre Dumas (père) completed in 1844. It is one of the author’s most popular works, along with The Three Musketeers. Like many of his novels, it is expanded from plot outlines suggested by his collaborating ghostwriter Auguste Maquet.

The story takes place in France, Italy, and islands in the Mediterranean during the historical events of 1815–1839: the era of theBourbon Restoration through the reign of Louis-Philippe of France. It begins just before the Hundred Days period (when Napoleonreturned to power after his exile). The historical setting is a fundamental element of the book, an adventure story primarily concerned with themes of hope, justice, vengeance, mercy, and forgiveness. It centres around a man who is wrongfully imprisoned, escapes from jail, acquires a fortune, and sets about getting revenge on those responsible for his imprisonment. However, his plans have devastating consequences for the innocent as well as the guilty. In addition, it is a story that involves romance, loyalty, betrayal, and selfishness, shown throughout the story as characters slowly reveal their true inner nature.

The book is considered a literary classic today. According to Luc Sante, “The Count of Monte Cristo has become a fixture of Western civilization’s literature, as inescapable and immediately identifiable as Mickey Mouse, Noah’s flood, and the story of Little Red Riding Hood.”

The Stranger


The Stranger -by  Albert Camus


About the Author ALBERT CAMUS was born in Mondovi, Algeria, in 1913. After winning a degree in philosophy, he worked at various jobs, ending up in journalism. In the thirties he ran a theatrical company, and during the war was active in the French Resistance, editing an important underground paper, Combat. Among his major works are four widely praised works of fiction, The Stranger (1946), The Plague (1948), The Fall (1957), and Exile and the Kingdom (1958); a volume of plays, Caligula and Three Other Plays (1958); and two books of philosophical essays, The Rebel (1954) and The Myth of Sisyphus (1955), both of which are available in the Vintage series. Albert Camus was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1957. He was killed in an automobile accident on January 4, 1960. THIS BOOK was set on the Linotype in Janson, an excellent example o f the influential and sturdy Dutch types that prevailed in England prior to the development by William Caslon of his own designs, which he evolved from these Dutch faces. Of Janson himself little is known except that he was a practicing type-founder in Leipzig during the years 1660 to 1687. Printed and bound by THE COLONIAL PRESS INC., Clinton, Massachusetts. Cover design by LEO LIONNI.

Motorcycle Diaries

Ernesto Guevara’s travel diaries, transcribed by Che’s Personal Archive in Havana,* recount the
trials, vicissitudes and tremendous adventure of a young man’s journey of discovery through Latin
America. Ernesto began writing these diaries when, in December 1951, he set off with his friend
Alberto Granado on their long-awaited trip from Buenos Aires, down the Atlantic coast of Argentina,
across the pampas, through the Andes and into Chile, and from Chile northward to Peru and
Colombia and finally to Caracas.
These experiences were later rewritten by Ernesto himself in narrative form, offering the reader
a deeper insight into Che’s life, especially at a little known stage, and revealing details of his
personality, his cultural background and his narrative skill — the genesis of a style which develops
in his later works. The reader can also witness the extraordinary change which takes place in him
as he discovers Latin America, gets right to its very heart and develops a growing sense of a Latin
American identity, ultimately making him a precursor of the new history of America.
Aleida March
Che’s Personal Archive
Havana, Cuba, 1993